Python is a dynamic object-oriented programming language that can be used for many kinds of software development. It offers strong support for integration with other languages and tools, comes with extensive standard libraries, and can be learned in a few days. Many Python programmers report substantial productivity gains and feel the language encourages the development of higher quality, more maintainable code.
Python runs on Windows, Linux/Unix, Mac OS X, OS/2, Amiga, Palm Handhelds, and Nokia mobile phones. Python has also been ported to the Java and .NET virtual machines.
Python is distributed under an OSI-approved open source license that makes it free to use, even for commercial products.
Core and Builtins
- Issue #6707: dir() on an uninitialized module caused a crash.
- Issue #6540: Fixed crash for bytearray.translate() with invalid parameters.
- Issue #6573: set.union() stopped processing inputs if an instance of self
occurred in the argument chain.
- Issue #6070: On posix platforms import no longer copies the execute bit
from the .py file to the .pyc file if it is set.
- Issue #6428: Since Python 3.0, the __bool__ method must return a bool
object, and not an int. Fix the corresponding error message, and the
- Issue #6347: Include inttypes.h as well as stdint.h in pyport.h.
This fixes a build failure on HP-UX: int32_t and uint32_t are
defined in inttypes.h instead of stdint.h on that platform.
- Issue #6373: Fixed a SystemError when encoding with the latin-1 codec and
the 'surrogateescape' error handler, a string which contains unpaired
- Issue #6624: yArg_ParseTuple with "s" format when parsing argument with
NUL: Bogus TypeError detail string.
- Issue #6405: Remove duplicate type declarations in descrobject.h.
- The code flags for old __future__ features are now available again.
- Issue #6106: telnetlib.Telnet.process_rawq doesn't handle default WILL/WONT
- Issue #6126: Fixed pdb command-line usage.
- Issue #6629: Fix a data corruption issue in the new I/O library, which could
occur when writing to a BufferedRandom object (e.g. a file opened in "rb+" or
"wb+" mode) after having buffered a certain amount of data for reading. This
bug was not present in the pure Python implementation.
- Issue #6622: Fix "local variable 'secret' referenced before
assignment" bug in POP3.apop.
- Issue #6637: defaultdict.copy() did not work when the default factory
was left unspecified. Also, the eval/repr round-trip would fail when
the default_factory was None.
- Issue #2715: Remove remnants of Carbon.File from binhex module.
- Issue #6595: The Decimal constructor now allows arbitrary Unicode
decimal digits in input, as recommended by the standard. Previously
it was restricted to accepting [0-9].
- Issues #5155, #5313, #5331: multiprocessing.Process._bootstrap was
unconditionally calling "os.close(sys.stdin.fileno())" resulting in file
- Issue #1424152: Fix for http.client, urllib.request to support SSL while
working through proxy. Original patch by Christopher Li, changes made by
- importlib.abc.PyLoader did not inherit from importlib.abc.ResourceLoader like
the documentation said it did even though the code in PyLoader relied on the
abstract method required by ResourceLoader.
- Issue #6431: Make Fraction type return NotImplemented when it doesn't
know how to handle a comparison without loss of precision. Also add
correct handling of infinities and nans for comparisons with float.
- Issue #6415: Fixed warnings.warn segfault on bad formatted string.
- Issue #6358: The exit status of a command started with os.popen() was
reported differently than it did with python 2.x.
- Issue #6323: The pdb debugger did not exit when running a script with a
- Issue #3392: The subprocess communicate() method no longer fails in select()
when file descriptors are large; communicate() now uses poll() when possible.
- Issue #6369: Fix an RLE decompression bug in the binhex module.
- Issue #6344: Fixed a crash of mmap.read() when passed a negative argument.
- Issue #4005: Fixed a crash of pydoc when there was a zip file present in
- Fix a segfault in expat.
- Issue #4509: array.array objects are no longer modified after an operation
failing due to the resize restriction in-place when the object has exported
- Issue 4601: 'make install' did not set the appropriate permissions on
- Issue 5390: Add uninstall icon independent of whether file
extensions are installed.
- Fix a test in importlib.test.source.test_abc_loader that was incorrectly
testing when a .pyc file lacked an code object bytecode.