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PostgreSQL 9.6.2

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# Changes
- Fix a race condition that could cause indexes built with CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY to be corrupt
- If CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY was used to build an index that depends on a column not previously indexed, then rows updated by transactions that ran concurrently with the CREATE INDEX command could have received incorrect index entries. If you suspect this may have happened, the most reliable solution is to rebuild affected indexes after installing this update.
- Ensure that the special snapshot used for catalog scans is not invalidated by premature data pruning
- Backends failed to account for this snapshot when advertising their oldest xmin, potentially allowing concurrent vacuuming operations to remove data that was still needed. This led to transient failures along the lines of "cache lookup failed for relation 1255".
- Fix incorrect WAL logging for BRIN indexes
- The WAL record emitted for a BRIN "revmap" page when moving an index tuple to a different page was incorrect. Replay would make the related portion of the index useless, forcing it to be recomputed.
- Unconditionally WAL-log creation of the "init fork" for an unlogged table Previously, this was skipped when wal_level = minimal, but actually it's necessary even in that case to ensure that the unlogged table is properly reset to empty after a crash.
- If the stats collector dies during hot standby, restart it
- Ensure that hot standby feedback works correctly when it's enabled at standby server start
- Check for interrupts while hot standby is waiting for a conflicting query
- Avoid constantly respawning the autovacuum launcher in a corner case . This fix avoids problems when autovacuum is nominally off and there are some tables that require freezing, but all such tables are already being processed by autovacuum workers.
- Disallow setting the num_sync field to zero in synchronous_standby_names
- The correct way to disable synchronous standby is to set the whole value to an empty string.
- Don't count background worker processes against a user's connection limit
- Fix check for when an extension member object can be dropped Extension upgrade scripts should be able to drop member objects, but this was disallowed for serial-column sequences, and possibly other cases.
- Fix tracking of initial privileges for extension member objects so that it works correctly with ALTER EXTENSION ... ADD/DROP
- An object's current privileges at the time it is added to the extension will now be considered its default privileges; only later changes in its privileges will be dumped by subsequent pg_dump runs.
- Make sure ALTER TABLE preserves index tablespace assignments when rebuilding indexes
- Previously, non-default settings of default_tablespace could result in broken indexes.
- Fix incorrect updating of trigger function properties when changing a foreign-key constraint's deferrability properties with ALTER TABLE ... ALTER CONSTRAINT This led to odd failures during subsequent exercise of the foreign key, as the triggers were fired at the wrong times.
- Prevent dropping a foreign-key constraint if there are pending trigger events for the referenced relation This avoids "could not find trigger NNN" or "relation NNN has no triggers" errors.
- Fix ALTER TABLE ... SET DATA TYPE ... USING when child table has different column ordering than the parent. Failure to adjust the column numbering in the USING expression led to errors, typically "attribute N has wrong type".
- Fix processing of OID column when a table with OIDs is associated to a parent with OIDs via ALTER TABLE ... INHERIT . The OID column should be treated the same as regular user columns in this case, but it wasn't, leading to odd behavior in later inheritance changes.
- Ensure that CREATE TABLE ... LIKE ... WITH OIDS creates a table with OIDs, whether or not the LIKE-referenced table(s) have OIDs
- Fix CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW to update the view query before attempting to apply the new view options . Previously the command would fail if the new options were inconsistent with the old view definition.
- Report correct object identity during ALTER TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION The wrong catalog OID was reported to extensions such as logical decoding.
- Fix commit timestamp mechanism to not fail when queried about the special XIDs FrozenTransactionId and BootstrapTransactionId
- Fix incorrect use of view reloptions as regular table reloptions The symptom was spurious "ON CONFLICT is not supported on table ... used as a catalog table" errors when the target of INSERT ... ON CONFLICT is a view with cascade option.
- Fix incorrect "target lists can have at most N entries" complaint when using ON CONFLICT with wide tables
- Fix spurious "query provides a value for a dropped column" errors during INSERT or UPDATE on a table with a dropped column
- Prevent multicolumn expansion of foo.* in an UPDATE source expression This led to "UPDATE target count mismatch --- internal error". Now the syntax is understood as a whole-row variable, as it would be in other contexts.
- Ensure that column typmods are determined accurately for multi-row VALUES constructs .This fixes problems occurring when the first value in a column has a determinable typmod (e.g., length for a varchar value) but later values don't share the same limit.
- Throw error for an unfinished Unicode surrogate pair at the end of a Unicode string . Normally, a Unicode surrogate leading character must be followed by a Unicode surrogate trailing character, but the check for this was missed if the leading character was the last character in a Unicode string literal (U&'...') or Unicode identifier (U&"...").
- Fix execution of DISTINCT and ordered aggregates when multiple such aggregates are able to share the same transition state
- Fix implementation of phrase search operators in tsquery. Remove incorrect, and inconsistently-applied, rewrite rules that tried to transform away AND/OR/NOT operators appearing below a PHRASE operator; instead upgrade the execution engine to handle such cases correctly. This fixes assorted strange behavior and possible crashes for text search queries containing such combinations. Also fix nested PHRASE operators to work sanely in combinations other than simple left-deep trees, correct the behavior when removing stopwords from a phrase search clause, and make sure that index searches behave consistently with simple sequential-scan application of such queries.
- Ensure that a purely negative text search query, such as !foo, matches empty tsvectors . Such matches were found by GIN index searches, but not by sequential scans or GiST index searches.
- Prevent crash when ts_rewrite() replaces a non-top-level subtree with an empty query .
- Fix performance problems in ts_rewrite().
- Fix ts_rewrite()'s handling of nested NOT operators .
- Improve speed of user-defined aggregates that use array_append() as transition function.
- Fix array_fill() to handle empty arrays properly .
- Fix possible crash in array_position() or array_positions() when processing arrays of records .
- Fix one-byte buffer overrun in quote_literal_cstr() . The overrun occurred only if the input consisted entirely of single quotes and/or backslashes.
- Prevent multiple calls of pg_start_backup() and pg_stop_backup() from running concurrently.This avoids an assertion failure, and possibly worse things, if someone tries to run these functions in parallel.
- Disable transform that attempted to remove no-op AT TIME ZONE conversions . This resulted in wrong answers when the simplified expression was used in an index condition.
- Avoid discarding interval-to-interval casts that aren't really no-ops. In some cases, a cast that should result in zeroing out low-order interval fields was mistakenly deemed to be a no-op and discarded. An example is that casting from INTERVAL MONTH to INTERVAL YEAR failed to clear the months field.
- Fix crash if the number of workers available to a parallel query decreases during a rescan .
- Fix bugs in transmitting GUC parameter values to parallel workers.
- Allow statements prepared with PREPARE to be given parallel plans.
- Fix incorrect generation of parallel plans for semi-joins .
- Fix planner's cardinality estimates for parallel joins .
- Ensure that these estimates reflect the number of rows predicted to be seen by each worker, rather than the total.
- Fix planner to avoid trying to parallelize plan nodes containing initplans or subplans .
- Ensure that cached plans are invalidated by changes in foreign-table options.
- Fix the plan generated for sorted partial aggregation with a constant GROUP BY clause.
- Fix "could not find plan for CTE" planner error when dealing with a UNION ALL containing CTE references.
- Fix mishandling of initplans when forcibly adding a Material node to a subplan .
- The typical consequence of this mistake was a "plan should not reference subplan's variable" error.
- Fix foreign-key-based join selectivity estimation for semi-joins and anti-joins, as well as inheritance cases .
- The new code for taking the existence of a foreign key relationship into account did the wrong thing in these cases, making the estimates worse not better than the pre-9.6 code.
- Fix pg_dump to emit the data of a sequence that is marked as an extension configuration table.
- Fix mishandling of ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES ... REVOKE in pg_dump . pg_dump missed issuing the required REVOKE commands in cases where ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES had been used to reduce privileges to less than they would normally be.
- Fix pg_dump to dump user-defined casts and transforms that use built-in functions.
- Fix pg_restore with --create --if-exists to behave more sanely if an archive contains unrecognized DROP commands . This doesn't fix any live bug, but it may improve the behavior in future if pg_restore is used with an archive generated by a later pg_dump version.
- Fix pg_basebackup's rate limiting in the presence of slow I/O . If disk I/O was transiently much slower than the specified rate limit, the calculation overflowed, effectively disabling the rate limit for the rest of the run.
- Fix pg_basebackup's handling of symlinked pg_stat_tmp and pg_replslot subdirectories .
- Fix possible pg_basebackup failure on standby server when including WAL files.
- Improve initdb to insert the correct platform-specific default values for the xxx_flush_after parameters into postgresql.conf . This is a cleaner way of documenting the default values than was used previously.
- Fix possible mishandling of expanded arrays in domain check constraints and CASE execution. It was possible for a PL/pgSQL function invoked in these contexts to modify or even delete an array value that needs to be preserved for additional operations.
- Fix nested uses of PL/pgSQL functions in contexts such as domain check constraints evaluated during assignment to a PL/pgSQL variable.
- Ensure that the Python exception objects we create for PL/Python are properly reference-counted . This avoids failures if the objects are used after a Python garbage collection cycle has occurred.
- Fix PL/Tcl to support triggers on tables that have .tupno as a column name . This matches the behavior of PL/Tcl's spi_exec and spi_execp commands, namely that a magic .tupno column is inserted only if there isn't a real column named that.
- Allow DOS-style line endings in ~/.pgpass files, even on Unix. This change simplifies use of the same password file across Unix and Windows machines.
- Fix one-byte buffer overrun if ecpg is given a file name that ends with a dot .
- Fix incorrect error reporting for duplicate data in psql's \crosstabview psql sometimes quoted the wrong row and/or column values when complaining about multiple entries for the same crosstab cell.
- Fix psql's tab completion for ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES .
- Fix psql's tab completion for ALTER TABLE t ALTER c DROP ....
- In psql, treat an empty or all-blank setting of the PAGER environment variable as meaning "no pager" Previously, such a setting caused output intended for the pager to vanish entirely.
- Improve contrib/dblink's reporting of low-level libpq errors, such as out-of-memory
- Teach contrib/dblink to ignore irrelevant server options when it uses a contrib/postgres_fdw foreign server as the source of connection options Previously, if the foreign server object had options that were not also libpq connection options, an error occurred.
- Fix portability problems in contrib/pageinspect's functions for GIN indexes
- Fix possible miss of socket read events while waiting on Windows . This error was harmless for most uses, but it is known to cause hangs when trying to use the pldebugger extension.
- On Windows, ensure that environment variable changes are propagated to DLLs built with debug options .
- Sync our copy of the timezone library with IANA release tzcode2016j . This fixes various issues, most notably that timezone data installation failed if the target directory didn't support hard links.
- Update time zone data files to tzdata release 2016j for DST law changes in northern Cyprus (adding a new zone Asia/Famagusta), Russia (adding a new zone Europe/Saratov), Tonga, and Antarctica/Casey. Historical corrections for Italy, Kazakhstan, Malta, and Palestine. Switch to preferring numeric zone abbreviations for Tonga.